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09 Dec 2008 - Hyperglycemia


Hyperglycemia/ High Blood Sugar:

Causes of High blood sugar:  Too little insulin
                                                       Not giving insulin when needed
                                                       Illness or infection
                                                       Stress
                                                       Bad infusion set

Blood Sugar:  over 240 mg/dl or 13.3 mmol/L

Ketones:  Usually moderate or large in the urine.  Over 0.6 mmol/L in the blood.




Symptoms Treatment
MILD Thirst, frequent urination, sweet breath, small or moderate urine ketones or blood ketones less than 1.0 mmol/L. Give lots of fluids snd fast acting insulin every two to three hours.
MODERATE Dry mouth, nausea, stomach cramps, vomitting, moderate or large urine ketones or blood ketones between 1.0 and 3.0 mmol/L. Continued contact with healthcare team.  Give lots of fluids.  Give fast acting insulin every two to three hours.  Give Phenergan for vomitting.
SEVERE Labored deep breathing, extreme weakness, confusion and eventually unconsciousness.  Large urine ketones or blood ketones above 3.0 mmol/L. GO TO THE ER!  May need IV fluids and insulin.




Highs/ HI on meter

If blood sugar is slightly above normal:

  • Continue regular activity
  • Drink water or sugar-free drinks
  • Monitor blood sugar levels by checking regularly

If blood sugar is moderately high:

  • Don't engage in strenuous exercise
  • Drink water or sugar-free drinks
  • Inject additional insulin as instructed by provider or using correction factor
  • Monitor blood sugar levels by checking regularly

If blood sugar is very high (over 240 fasting or 300 otherwise):

  • Don't engage in strenuous exercise
  • Drink water or sugar-free drinks
  • Inject additional insulin as instructed by physician and using correction factor
  • Test ketone levels, if large, contact physician immediately
Monitor blood sugar levels by checking regularly

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